Waves and Cycles as Modes of Change
Some 500 years before Christ, Parmenides remarked that there is nothing
new under the sun. In fact, he went on, there is neither evolution nor
movement, but only unchangeable, persisting being. Our senses, which
convey a world in motion, are deceiving us. Yet, at about the same time,
Heraclitus asserted that everything is flowing, nothing lasts. His dialectical
theory interprets the law o f development as the evolutionary flow o f the
continuous interaction o f opposing forces at different levels (Storig 1961).