chapter  5
14 Pages


Politicians and lay people pay almost exclusive attention to superficial forces. It is for this reason that the programs they design to alter cyclical change have always failed, for those programs are aimed at superficial manifestations rather than underlying dynamics. The Honorable Mr. Giolitti was loudly cheered when he told Parliament on July 22 that “the people who try to influence political life with the billions they earned during the war are definitely in the wrong.” Governments are exhausting the sources from which they have been taking money to satisfy greedy partisans and to calm political opponents. British governments often operated in this way, as did Napoleon III in France and Bismarck in Germany. The government wanted to encourage workers in their experiment in order that they might discover for themselves that their interests are inseparable from those of capital.