Avoidance of Betrayal
This chapter illustrates how common and basic defenses are and how they are embedded in social life through habits, norms, and institutions. It presents a few general social forces that function to reduce the possibility of betrayal. The chapter divides the strategies into those applied to guard or hinder one from revealing things oneself, and another group of strategies used to keep others in line. It deals with the theme by itself since silence is such a basic mechanism for limiting the spread of harmful information. The chapter discusses the betrayal avoidance as individual tactics versus collective tactics. One strategy in the area of nonbetrayal is to avoid belonging to more than one group simultaneously if the groups' interests might conflict in regard to an individual. The chapter consists of a questionnaire distributed to a large group and of a few in-depth interviews. Groups and collectives create different protective devices in order not to be betrayed.