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This chapter provides a brief historical background and a description of major events in Luxembourg. It also provides basic political, economic, and social data arranged in the following categories: polity, economy, population, purchasing power parities, life expectancy, ethnic groups, capital, political rights, civil liberties, and status. The chapter discusses the progress and decline of political rights and civil liberties in Luxembourg. Luxembourg's Grand Duke Henri de Luxembourg officially opened a session of parliament in October 2001, signifying the first time since 1877 that a member of the royal family has performed this duty. Luxembourg's multiparty electoral system is based on proportional representation. Executive authority is exercised by the prime minister and the cabinet on behalf of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg's population grew 12 percent in the 1990s, and it is expected to nearly double by 2025. European Union citizens who reside in Luxembourg enjoy the right to vote and to run in municipal elections.