Measurement and Research Methods
Research on personality depends on the theory, measurement, methodology, and resources. Phenomenological, or the self, theorists such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow also recognize the centrality of motives of various kinds in the formation of personality. Psychodynamic theories of personality are concerned primarily with motivation and conflict and the phenomenological theories are concerned with perception, whereas the social learning theories of Julian Rotter, Albert Bandura, and Walter Mischel emphasize the importance of learning in a social context. The five-factor model of personality has stimulated a great deal of the empirical research, and some studies have found the factors to be highly consistent across different cultures and nationalities. Numerous psychometric instruments have been designed to measure the variables under consideration in research and applications in personality psychology. Among the paper-and-pencil inventories, briefer, trait-oriented instruments such as the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Inventory remain quite popular.