Intelligent Thinking and the Reflective Essay
Those in schools and colleges can improve students' thinking and thus make them more intelligent. We may be able to do this more effectively if we have a better idea of what we are doing. "We" means students and faculty: Students apply standards of thinking to each other, just as faculty apply them to students and to other faculty. In early universities, the standards came from Aristotle. Logic was an essential part of the curriculum. We still sometimes criticize each other for begging the question, introducing non sequiturs, and stumbling into other Aristotelian fallacies. Recent scholarship has given us a clearer idea of what good thinking is, where thinking goes wrong, and how education can help.