chapter  4
19 Pages

Variation in Achievement Scores Related to Gender, Item Format, and Content Area Tested: Joseph M. Ryan and Sarah DeMark

Validity is the central issue in evaluating the appropriateness of all forms of assessment

and must remain the critical criterion guiding assessment development, applications, and

the use of assessment results. The analysis and evaluation of validity, however, has

become increasingly complex because of changes in three major areas of educational

activity. These major areas include curriculum reform efforts, greater emphasis on

constructedresponse assessment formats that support the curriculum reforms, and a

reconceptualization of validity as a unitary characteristic of assessment organized under

the superordinate concept of construct validity.