Long-term memory is the repository for that vast information stockpile that defines what we know: words, images, strategies, procedures, and innumerable assemblages of knowledge. Long-term memory is the m ind’s warehouse. Its capacity is, for all practical considerations, unlimited. The duration of long-term memory is probably unlimited except by neural degeneration. Once an idea is
recorded in long-term memory it may stay there permanently, although retrieving it may prove difficult. A schematic for the basic cognitive architecture is depicted in Figure 3.2. The top portion of the diagram is Baddeley’s working memory model; the bottom portion represents long-term memory. The efficient movement of information between long-term and working memory is vital to intellectual functioning. To move information from volatile working memory to long-term memory produces the trace we call learning (or storage). Remembering (or retrieval) entails moving information in the opposite direction, from long-term memory back into the consciousness of working memory. Effective cognitive functioning depends on the efficient cooperation of memory storage and symbol processing, and both psychometric theorists (e.g., Carroll, 1993) and cognitive scientists (e.g., Hunt, Frost, & Lunneborg, 1973) have found ties between these memory transfer functions and g.