As we approach the idea of education as a way to cultivate intelligence, it becomes necessary to decouple the terms education and schooling. In common parlance they are used synonymously, as if schooling “constitutes the educational system” (Brandwein, 1981, p. 9), but philosophers of education from Plato to Dewey have recognized the difference. Brandwein (1981) divided the two terms, explaining that:
The meaning of the Latin root educere is “to draw out.” Education can be construed as any process that extends a human being in directions that build capacity and that lead to yet further growth, wherever and however that occurs. Educative experiences build competencies that are, in Snow’s (1991) terminology, propaedeutic, or “needed as preparation fo r . . . [some future] success” (p. 257). A broad definition of education does not specify curriculum or venue.