Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Child Development: The Hollingshead Four-Factor Index of Social Status and the Socioeconomic Index of Occupations
This chapter presents few theoretical models for understanding how neighborhood influences may be transmitted to children and youth, institutional resources, relationships, and norms and collective efficacy. It highlights how socioeconomic status (SES) disparities at the neighborhood-level may operate. Subsequently, results from the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO), an experimental study of moving from high- to low-poverty neighborhoods, are reviewed. The chapter represents a novel policy response to addressing SES disparities, as well as a unique research opportunity; findings are presented for parents, children, and youth. SES disparities in well-being have prompted both empirical inquiry and policy attention. Quality and availability of health and social services, on the other hand, are likely to be important for physical and mental health outcomes, regardless of child age.