Methodological Issues in Studies of SES, Parenting, and Child Development
The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for children's development has been a subject of research for almost three-quarters of a century (Davis, 1941; Davis & Havighurst, 1946; Hollingshead, 1949; Lynd & Lynd, 1929; Warner & Lunt, 1942). Children's access to health facilities, nutrition, and education; their physical environment, neighborhood, and peers; the kinds of childrearing patterns experienced; the size of their family, its authority structure, and its stability-aIl are related to social class (L. Hoffman, 1984). So too are a great many child outcomeshealth, cognitive performance, social adjustment, educational attainment, and teen pregnancy. Thus, a major chaIlenge for developmental science is to understand the links that connect socioeconomic factors to child outcomes.