Psychological Interventions and Chronic Pain
The use of psychological interventions in the management of nonmalignant chronic pain, such as low back pain, headaches, and arthritis, is no longer considered treatment of last resort. Previously, psychologists were involved only after other biologically based methods had failed (Turk & Flor, 1984). Today, psychological interventions are often delivered concurrently with many biologically based interventions, such as physiotherapy and exercise therapy. Treatment can be offered within a multidisciplinary context, but also as an independent or separate service. Treatment may occur as an outpatient or inpatient and may be offered individually or in a group context with or without the involvement of family members or significant others.