Chaos and Self-Organization in Groups
This diagram (Fig. 6.1), by Arrow, McGrath, and Berdahl2 is built on the juxtaposition of internal and external forces with planned and emergent forces. This intersection of forces produces four types of groups. Con cocted groups refer to those groups in which external and planned forces predominate. Work groups that are formed to perform particular tasks or jobs that require some coordination among members are examples of this type of group. Founded groups are those in which internal, planned forces predominate. In this case, someone maybe decides to start a new commu nity organization devoted to cleaning the city parks. This group attracts people with similar interests who then come together and plan and orga nize themselves.