Systemic Conditions Affecting Voice
Essential features. Deficiency in thyroid hormone levels. Prolonged levels of hypothyroidism may result in vocal fold edema.
Associated features. Removal or loss of functioning thyroid tissue results in myxedema. Myxedema is characterized by edema within the subcutaneous tissue (potentially in the larynx or elsewhere), dryness and loss of hair, subnormal body temperature, and hoarseness and muscle weakness. Infantile myxedema begins during infancy as a result of some acquired injury or disease of the thyroid gland. Congenital atrophy or absence of the thyroid gland results in cretinism, which is dwarfism with intellectual impairment.