Other Disorders Affecting Voice
Essential features. Dysphonia in the absence of current organic vocal fold pathology, without obvious psychogenic or neurologic etiology, associated with excessive, atypical or abnormal laryngeal movements during phonation. Observations during rigid or flexible laryngoscopy may reveal consistent laryngeal or supraglottic constriction or vocal fold hypoadduction during phonation. However, visual evidence of hyper-and hypoadduction or anteroposterior constriction must be interpreted within the context of other clinical evidence (e.g., patient response to scoping, case history report, voice probes, etc.). Although abnormal muscle tension has been presumed clinically (hence, the prevalence of the term “Muscle Tension Dysphonia”), few objective studies have substantiated abnormal muscular tensions empirically. The classification Muscle Tension Dysphonia represents a persistent, unexplained dysphonia that is behaviorally modifiable.