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*Explore the Radiative Exchange between Surfaces*

Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, **Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

This revised version updates information on properties of surfaces and of absorbing/emitting/scattering materials, radiative transfer among surfaces, and radiative transfer in participating media. It also enhances the chapter on near-field effects, addresses new applications that include enhanced solar cell performance and self-regulating surfaces for thermal control, and updates references.

Comprised of 17 chapters, this text:

- Discusses the fundamental RTE and its simplified forms for different medium properties
- Presents an intuitive relationship between the RTE formulations and the configuration factor analyses
- Explores the historical development and the radiative behavior of a blackbody
- Defines the radiative properties of solid opaque surfaces
- Provides a detailed analysis and solution procedure for radiation exchange analysis
- Contains methods for determining the radiative flux divergence (the radiative source term in the energy equation)

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** explores methods for solving the RTE to determine the local spectral intensity, radiative flux, and flux gradient. This book enables you to assess and calculate the exchange of energy between objects that determine radiative transfer at different energy levels.

**Introduction to Radiative Transfer**

Importance of Thermal Radiation in Engineering

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Radiative Transfer

Radiative Energy Exchange and Radiative Intensity

Characteristics of Emission

Radiative Energy along a Line-of-Sight

Radiative Transfer Equation

Radiative Transfer in Enclosures with Nonparticipating Media

Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes

Homework

**Radiative Properties at Interfaces**

Introduction

Emissivity

Absorptivity

Reflectivity

Transmissivity at an Interface

Relations among Reflectivity, Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Transmissivity

Homework

**Radiative Properties of Opaque Materials**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Wave Theory Predictions

Extensions of the Theory for Radiative Properties

Measured Properties of Real Dielectric Materials

Measured Properties of Metals

Selective and Directional Opaque Surfaces

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Configuration Factors for Diffuse Surfaces with Uniform Radiosity**

Radiative Transfer Equation for Surfaces Separated by a Transparent Medium

Geometric Configuration Factors between Two Surfaces

Methods for Determining Configuration Factors

Constraints on Configuration Factor Accuracy

Compilation of Known Configuration Factors and Their References: Appendix C and Web Catalog

Homework

**Radiation Exchange in Enclosures Composed of Black and/or Diffuse-Gray Surfaces**

Introduction

Radiative Transfer for Black Surfaces

Radiation between Finite Diffuse-Gray Areas

Radiation Analysis Using Infinitesimal Areas

Computer Programs for Enclosure Analysis

Homework

**Exchange of Thermal Radiation among Nondiffuse Nongray Surfaces**

Introduction

Enclosure Theory for Diffuse Nongray Surfaces

Directional-Gray Surfaces

Surfaces with Directionally and Spectrally Dependent Properties

Radiation Exchange in Enclosures with Specularly Reflecting Surfaces

Net-Radiation Method in Enclosures Having Both Specular and Diffuse Reflecting Surfaces

Multiple Radiation Shields

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection at Boundaries**

Introduction

Energy Relations and Boundary Conditions

Radiation Transfer with Conduction Boundary Conditions

Radiation with Convection and Conduction

Numerical Solution Methods

Numerical Integration Methods for Use with Enclosure Equations

Numerical Formulations for Combined-Mode Energy Transfer

Numerical Solution Techniques

Monte Carlo Method

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Inverse Problems in Radiative Heat Transfer**

Introduction to Inverse Problems

General Inverse Solution Methods

Comparison of Methods for a Particular Problem

Application of Metaheuristic Methods

Unresolved Problems

Inverse Problems at the Nanoscale

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Properties of Absorbing and Emitting Media**

Introduction

Spectral Lines and Bands for Gas Absorption and Emission

Band Models and Correlations for Gas Absorption and Emission

Gas Total Emittance Correlations

True Absorption Coefficient

Radiative Properties of Translucent Liquids and Solids

Homework

**Fundamental Radiative Transfer Relations**

Introduction

Energy Equation and Boundary Conditions for a Participating Medium

Radiative Transfer and Source-Function Equations

Radiative Flux and Its Divergence within a Medium

Summary of Relations for Radiative Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media

Treatment of Radiation Transfer in Non-LTE Media

Net Radiation Method for Enclosures Filled with an Isothermal Medium of Uniform Composition

Evaluation of Spectral Geometric-Mean Transmittance and Absorptance Factors

Mean Beam Length Approximation for Spectral Radiation from an Entire Volume of a Medium to All or Part of Its Boundary

Exchange of Total Radiation in an Enclosure by Use of Mean Beam Length

Optically Thin and Cold Media

Homework

**Radiative Transfer in Plane Layers and Multidimensional Geometries**

Introduction

Radiative Intensity, Flux, Flux Divergence, and Source Function in a Plane Layer

Gray Plane Layer of Absorbing and Emitting Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Gray Plane Layer in Radiative Equilibrium

Multidimensional Radiation in a Participating Gray Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Homework

**Solution Methods for Radiative Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Series Expansion and Moment Methods

Discrete Ordinates (SN) Method

Other Methods That Depend on Angular Discretization

Zonal Method

Monte Carlo Technique for Radiatively Participating Media

Additional Solution Methods

Comparison of Results for the Methods

Benchmark Solutions for Computational Verification

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Use of Mean Absorption Coefficients

Solution Using Commercial Codes

Homework

**Conjugate Heat Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Radiation Combined with Conduction

Transient Solutions Including Conduction

Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in a Boundary Layer

Numerical Solution Methods for Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in Participating Media

Combined Radiation, Convection, and Conduction Heat Transfer

Inverse Multimode Problems

Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Homework

**Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

Introduction

EM Wave Equations

Wave Propagation in a Medium

Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Amplitude and Scattering Matrices

EM Wave Theory and the Radiative Transfer Equation

Homework

**Absorption and Scattering by Particles and Agglomerates**

Overview

Absorption and Scattering: Definitions

Scattering by Spherical Particles

Scattering by Small Particles

Lorenz-Mie Theory for Spherical Particles

Prediction of Properties for Irregularly Shaped Particles

Approximate Anisotropic Scattering Phase Functions

Dependent Absorption and Scattering

Homework

**Near-Field Thermal Radiation**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Treatment of Thermal Radiation and Basic Concepts

Evanescent and Surface Waves

Near-Field Radiative Heat Flux Calculations

Computational Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Experimental Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Concluding Remarks

Homework

Acknowledgment

**Radiative Effects in Translucent Solids, Windows, and Coatings**

Introduction

Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection of Windows

Enclosure Analysis with Partially Transparent Windows

Effects of Coatings or Thin Films on Surfaces

Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in a Participating Medium

Multiple Participating Layers with Heat Conduction

Light Pipes and Fiber Optics

Final Remarks

Homework

**A: Conversion Factors, Radiation Constants, and Blackbody Functions**

**B: Radiative Properties**

**Catalog of Selected Configuration Factors**

**Exponential Integral Relations and Two-Dimensional Radiation Functions**

**E: References**

*Explore the Radiative Exchange between Surfaces*

Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, **Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

This revised version updates information on properties of surfaces and of absorbing/emitting/scattering materials, radiative transfer among surfaces, and radiative transfer in participating media. It also enhances the chapter on near-field effects, addresses new applications that include enhanced solar cell performance and self-regulating surfaces for thermal control, and updates references.

Comprised of 17 chapters, this text:

- Discusses the fundamental RTE and its simplified forms for different medium properties
- Presents an intuitive relationship between the RTE formulations and the configuration factor analyses
- Explores the historical development and the radiative behavior of a blackbody
- Defines the radiative properties of solid opaque surfaces
- Provides a detailed analysis and solution procedure for radiation exchange analysis
- Contains methods for determining the radiative flux divergence (the radiative source term in the energy equation)

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** explores methods for solving the RTE to determine the local spectral intensity, radiative flux, and flux gradient. This book enables you to assess and calculate the exchange of energy between objects that determine radiative transfer at different energy levels.

**Introduction to Radiative Transfer**

Importance of Thermal Radiation in Engineering

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Radiative Transfer

Radiative Energy Exchange and Radiative Intensity

Characteristics of Emission

Radiative Energy along a Line-of-Sight

Radiative Transfer Equation

Radiative Transfer in Enclosures with Nonparticipating Media

Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes

Homework

**Radiative Properties at Interfaces**

Introduction

Emissivity

Absorptivity

Reflectivity

Transmissivity at an Interface

Relations among Reflectivity, Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Transmissivity

Homework

**Radiative Properties of Opaque Materials**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Wave Theory Predictions

Extensions of the Theory for Radiative Properties

Measured Properties of Real Dielectric Materials

Measured Properties of Metals

Selective and Directional Opaque Surfaces

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Configuration Factors for Diffuse Surfaces with Uniform Radiosity**

Radiative Transfer Equation for Surfaces Separated by a Transparent Medium

Geometric Configuration Factors between Two Surfaces

Methods for Determining Configuration Factors

Constraints on Configuration Factor Accuracy

Compilation of Known Configuration Factors and Their References: Appendix C and Web Catalog

Homework

**Radiation Exchange in Enclosures Composed of Black and/or Diffuse-Gray Surfaces**

Introduction

Radiative Transfer for Black Surfaces

Radiation between Finite Diffuse-Gray Areas

Radiation Analysis Using Infinitesimal Areas

Computer Programs for Enclosure Analysis

Homework

**Exchange of Thermal Radiation among Nondiffuse Nongray Surfaces**

Introduction

Enclosure Theory for Diffuse Nongray Surfaces

Directional-Gray Surfaces

Surfaces with Directionally and Spectrally Dependent Properties

Radiation Exchange in Enclosures with Specularly Reflecting Surfaces

Net-Radiation Method in Enclosures Having Both Specular and Diffuse Reflecting Surfaces

Multiple Radiation Shields

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection at Boundaries**

Introduction

Energy Relations and Boundary Conditions

Radiation Transfer with Conduction Boundary Conditions

Radiation with Convection and Conduction

Numerical Solution Methods

Numerical Integration Methods for Use with Enclosure Equations

Numerical Formulations for Combined-Mode Energy Transfer

Numerical Solution Techniques

Monte Carlo Method

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Inverse Problems in Radiative Heat Transfer**

Introduction to Inverse Problems

General Inverse Solution Methods

Comparison of Methods for a Particular Problem

Application of Metaheuristic Methods

Unresolved Problems

Inverse Problems at the Nanoscale

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Properties of Absorbing and Emitting Media**

Introduction

Spectral Lines and Bands for Gas Absorption and Emission

Band Models and Correlations for Gas Absorption and Emission

Gas Total Emittance Correlations

True Absorption Coefficient

Radiative Properties of Translucent Liquids and Solids

Homework

**Fundamental Radiative Transfer Relations**

Introduction

Energy Equation and Boundary Conditions for a Participating Medium

Radiative Transfer and Source-Function Equations

Radiative Flux and Its Divergence within a Medium

Summary of Relations for Radiative Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media

Treatment of Radiation Transfer in Non-LTE Media

Net Radiation Method for Enclosures Filled with an Isothermal Medium of Uniform Composition

Evaluation of Spectral Geometric-Mean Transmittance and Absorptance Factors

Mean Beam Length Approximation for Spectral Radiation from an Entire Volume of a Medium to All or Part of Its Boundary

Exchange of Total Radiation in an Enclosure by Use of Mean Beam Length

Optically Thin and Cold Media

Homework

**Radiative Transfer in Plane Layers and Multidimensional Geometries**

Introduction

Radiative Intensity, Flux, Flux Divergence, and Source Function in a Plane Layer

Gray Plane Layer of Absorbing and Emitting Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Gray Plane Layer in Radiative Equilibrium

Multidimensional Radiation in a Participating Gray Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Homework

**Solution Methods for Radiative Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Series Expansion and Moment Methods

Discrete Ordinates (SN) Method

Other Methods That Depend on Angular Discretization

Zonal Method

Monte Carlo Technique for Radiatively Participating Media

Additional Solution Methods

Comparison of Results for the Methods

Benchmark Solutions for Computational Verification

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Use of Mean Absorption Coefficients

Solution Using Commercial Codes

Homework

**Conjugate Heat Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Radiation Combined with Conduction

Transient Solutions Including Conduction

Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in a Boundary Layer

Numerical Solution Methods for Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in Participating Media

Combined Radiation, Convection, and Conduction Heat Transfer

Inverse Multimode Problems

Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Homework

**Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

Introduction

EM Wave Equations

Wave Propagation in a Medium

Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Amplitude and Scattering Matrices

EM Wave Theory and the Radiative Transfer Equation

Homework

**Absorption and Scattering by Particles and Agglomerates**

Overview

Absorption and Scattering: Definitions

Scattering by Spherical Particles

Scattering by Small Particles

Lorenz-Mie Theory for Spherical Particles

Prediction of Properties for Irregularly Shaped Particles

Approximate Anisotropic Scattering Phase Functions

Dependent Absorption and Scattering

Homework

**Near-Field Thermal Radiation**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Treatment of Thermal Radiation and Basic Concepts

Evanescent and Surface Waves

Near-Field Radiative Heat Flux Calculations

Computational Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Experimental Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Concluding Remarks

Homework

Acknowledgment

**Radiative Effects in Translucent Solids, Windows, and Coatings**

Introduction

Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection of Windows

Enclosure Analysis with Partially Transparent Windows

Effects of Coatings or Thin Films on Surfaces

Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in a Participating Medium

Multiple Participating Layers with Heat Conduction

Light Pipes and Fiber Optics

Final Remarks

Homework

**A: Conversion Factors, Radiation Constants, and Blackbody Functions**

**B: Radiative Properties**

**Catalog of Selected Configuration Factors**

**Exponential Integral Relations and Two-Dimensional Radiation Functions**

**E: References**

*Explore the Radiative Exchange between Surfaces*

Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, **Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

This revised version updates information on properties of surfaces and of absorbing/emitting/scattering materials, radiative transfer among surfaces, and radiative transfer in participating media. It also enhances the chapter on near-field effects, addresses new applications that include enhanced solar cell performance and self-regulating surfaces for thermal control, and updates references.

Comprised of 17 chapters, this text:

- Discusses the fundamental RTE and its simplified forms for different medium properties
- Presents an intuitive relationship between the RTE formulations and the configuration factor analyses
- Explores the historical development and the radiative behavior of a blackbody
- Defines the radiative properties of solid opaque surfaces
- Provides a detailed analysis and solution procedure for radiation exchange analysis
- Contains methods for determining the radiative flux divergence (the radiative source term in the energy equation)

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** explores methods for solving the RTE to determine the local spectral intensity, radiative flux, and flux gradient. This book enables you to assess and calculate the exchange of energy between objects that determine radiative transfer at different energy levels.

**Introduction to Radiative Transfer**

Importance of Thermal Radiation in Engineering

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Radiative Transfer

Radiative Energy Exchange and Radiative Intensity

Characteristics of Emission

Radiative Energy along a Line-of-Sight

Radiative Transfer Equation

Radiative Transfer in Enclosures with Nonparticipating Media

Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes

Homework

**Radiative Properties at Interfaces**

Introduction

Emissivity

Absorptivity

Reflectivity

Transmissivity at an Interface

Relations among Reflectivity, Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Transmissivity

Homework

**Radiative Properties of Opaque Materials**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Wave Theory Predictions

Extensions of the Theory for Radiative Properties

Measured Properties of Real Dielectric Materials

Measured Properties of Metals

Selective and Directional Opaque Surfaces

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Configuration Factors for Diffuse Surfaces with Uniform Radiosity**

Radiative Transfer Equation for Surfaces Separated by a Transparent Medium

Geometric Configuration Factors between Two Surfaces

Methods for Determining Configuration Factors

Constraints on Configuration Factor Accuracy

Compilation of Known Configuration Factors and Their References: Appendix C and Web Catalog

Homework

**Radiation Exchange in Enclosures Composed of Black and/or Diffuse-Gray Surfaces**

Introduction

Radiative Transfer for Black Surfaces

Radiation between Finite Diffuse-Gray Areas

Radiation Analysis Using Infinitesimal Areas

Computer Programs for Enclosure Analysis

Homework

**Exchange of Thermal Radiation among Nondiffuse Nongray Surfaces**

Introduction

Enclosure Theory for Diffuse Nongray Surfaces

Directional-Gray Surfaces

Surfaces with Directionally and Spectrally Dependent Properties

Radiation Exchange in Enclosures with Specularly Reflecting Surfaces

Net-Radiation Method in Enclosures Having Both Specular and Diffuse Reflecting Surfaces

Multiple Radiation Shields

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection at Boundaries**

Introduction

Energy Relations and Boundary Conditions

Radiation Transfer with Conduction Boundary Conditions

Radiation with Convection and Conduction

Numerical Solution Methods

Numerical Integration Methods for Use with Enclosure Equations

Numerical Formulations for Combined-Mode Energy Transfer

Numerical Solution Techniques

Monte Carlo Method

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Inverse Problems in Radiative Heat Transfer**

Introduction to Inverse Problems

General Inverse Solution Methods

Comparison of Methods for a Particular Problem

Application of Metaheuristic Methods

Unresolved Problems

Inverse Problems at the Nanoscale

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Properties of Absorbing and Emitting Media**

Introduction

Spectral Lines and Bands for Gas Absorption and Emission

Band Models and Correlations for Gas Absorption and Emission

Gas Total Emittance Correlations

True Absorption Coefficient

Radiative Properties of Translucent Liquids and Solids

Homework

**Fundamental Radiative Transfer Relations**

Introduction

Energy Equation and Boundary Conditions for a Participating Medium

Radiative Transfer and Source-Function Equations

Radiative Flux and Its Divergence within a Medium

Summary of Relations for Radiative Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media

Treatment of Radiation Transfer in Non-LTE Media

Net Radiation Method for Enclosures Filled with an Isothermal Medium of Uniform Composition

Evaluation of Spectral Geometric-Mean Transmittance and Absorptance Factors

Mean Beam Length Approximation for Spectral Radiation from an Entire Volume of a Medium to All or Part of Its Boundary

Exchange of Total Radiation in an Enclosure by Use of Mean Beam Length

Optically Thin and Cold Media

Homework

**Radiative Transfer in Plane Layers and Multidimensional Geometries**

Introduction

Radiative Intensity, Flux, Flux Divergence, and Source Function in a Plane Layer

Gray Plane Layer of Absorbing and Emitting Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Gray Plane Layer in Radiative Equilibrium

Multidimensional Radiation in a Participating Gray Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Homework

**Solution Methods for Radiative Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Series Expansion and Moment Methods

Discrete Ordinates (SN) Method

Other Methods That Depend on Angular Discretization

Zonal Method

Monte Carlo Technique for Radiatively Participating Media

Additional Solution Methods

Comparison of Results for the Methods

Benchmark Solutions for Computational Verification

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Use of Mean Absorption Coefficients

Solution Using Commercial Codes

Homework

**Conjugate Heat Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Radiation Combined with Conduction

Transient Solutions Including Conduction

Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in a Boundary Layer

Numerical Solution Methods for Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in Participating Media

Combined Radiation, Convection, and Conduction Heat Transfer

Inverse Multimode Problems

Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Homework

**Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

Introduction

EM Wave Equations

Wave Propagation in a Medium

Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Amplitude and Scattering Matrices

EM Wave Theory and the Radiative Transfer Equation

Homework

**Absorption and Scattering by Particles and Agglomerates**

Overview

Absorption and Scattering: Definitions

Scattering by Spherical Particles

Scattering by Small Particles

Lorenz-Mie Theory for Spherical Particles

Prediction of Properties for Irregularly Shaped Particles

Approximate Anisotropic Scattering Phase Functions

Dependent Absorption and Scattering

Homework

**Near-Field Thermal Radiation**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Treatment of Thermal Radiation and Basic Concepts

Evanescent and Surface Waves

Near-Field Radiative Heat Flux Calculations

Computational Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Experimental Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Concluding Remarks

Homework

Acknowledgment

**Radiative Effects in Translucent Solids, Windows, and Coatings**

Introduction

Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection of Windows

Enclosure Analysis with Partially Transparent Windows

Effects of Coatings or Thin Films on Surfaces

Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in a Participating Medium

Multiple Participating Layers with Heat Conduction

Light Pipes and Fiber Optics

Final Remarks

Homework

**A: Conversion Factors, Radiation Constants, and Blackbody Functions**

**B: Radiative Properties**

**Catalog of Selected Configuration Factors**

**Exponential Integral Relations and Two-Dimensional Radiation Functions**

**E: References**

*Explore the Radiative Exchange between Surfaces*

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

Comprised of 17 chapters, this text:

- Discusses the fundamental RTE and its simplified forms for different medium properties
- Explores the historical development and the radiative behavior of a blackbody
- Defines the radiative properties of solid opaque surfaces
- Provides a detailed analysis and solution procedure for radiation exchange analysis

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** explores methods for solving the RTE to determine the local spectral intensity, radiative flux, and flux gradient. This book enables you to assess and calculate the exchange of energy between objects that determine radiative transfer at different energy levels.

**Introduction to Radiative Transfer**

Importance of Thermal Radiation in Engineering

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Radiative Transfer

Radiative Energy Exchange and Radiative Intensity

Characteristics of Emission

Radiative Energy along a Line-of-Sight

Radiative Transfer Equation

Radiative Transfer in Enclosures with Nonparticipating Media

Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes

Homework

**Radiative Properties at Interfaces**

Introduction

Emissivity

Absorptivity

Reflectivity

Transmissivity at an Interface

Relations among Reflectivity, Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Transmissivity

Homework

**Radiative Properties of Opaque Materials**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Wave Theory Predictions

Extensions of the Theory for Radiative Properties

Measured Properties of Real Dielectric Materials

Measured Properties of Metals

Selective and Directional Opaque Surfaces

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Configuration Factors for Diffuse Surfaces with Uniform Radiosity**

Radiative Transfer Equation for Surfaces Separated by a Transparent Medium

Geometric Configuration Factors between Two Surfaces

Methods for Determining Configuration Factors

Constraints on Configuration Factor Accuracy

Compilation of Known Configuration Factors and Their References: Appendix C and Web Catalog

Homework

**Radiation Exchange in Enclosures Composed of Black and/or Diffuse-Gray Surfaces**

Introduction

Radiative Transfer for Black Surfaces

Radiation between Finite Diffuse-Gray Areas

Radiation Analysis Using Infinitesimal Areas

Computer Programs for Enclosure Analysis

Homework

**Exchange of Thermal Radiation among Nondiffuse Nongray Surfaces**

Introduction

Enclosure Theory for Diffuse Nongray Surfaces

Directional-Gray Surfaces

Surfaces with Directionally and Spectrally Dependent Properties

Radiation Exchange in Enclosures with Specularly Reflecting Surfaces

Net-Radiation Method in Enclosures Having Both Specular and Diffuse Reflecting Surfaces

Multiple Radiation Shields

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection at Boundaries**

Introduction

Energy Relations and Boundary Conditions

Radiation Transfer with Conduction Boundary Conditions

Radiation with Convection and Conduction

Numerical Solution Methods

Numerical Integration Methods for Use with Enclosure Equations

Numerical Formulations for Combined-Mode Energy Transfer

Numerical Solution Techniques

Monte Carlo Method

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Inverse Problems in Radiative Heat Transfer**

Introduction to Inverse Problems

General Inverse Solution Methods

Comparison of Methods for a Particular Problem

Application of Metaheuristic Methods

Unresolved Problems

Inverse Problems at the Nanoscale

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Properties of Absorbing and Emitting Media**

Introduction

Spectral Lines and Bands for Gas Absorption and Emission

Band Models and Correlations for Gas Absorption and Emission

Gas Total Emittance Correlations

True Absorption Coefficient

Radiative Properties of Translucent Liquids and Solids

Homework

**Fundamental Radiative Transfer Relations**

Introduction

Energy Equation and Boundary Conditions for a Participating Medium

Radiative Transfer and Source-Function Equations

Radiative Flux and Its Divergence within a Medium

Summary of Relations for Radiative Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media

Treatment of Radiation Transfer in Non-LTE Media

Net Radiation Method for Enclosures Filled with an Isothermal Medium of Uniform Composition

Evaluation of Spectral Geometric-Mean Transmittance and Absorptance Factors

Exchange of Total Radiation in an Enclosure by Use of Mean Beam Length

Optically Thin and Cold Media

Homework

**Radiative Transfer in Plane Layers and Multidimensional Geometries**

Introduction

Radiative Intensity, Flux, Flux Divergence, and Source Function in a Plane Layer

Gray Plane Layer of Absorbing and Emitting Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Gray Plane Layer in Radiative Equilibrium

Multidimensional Radiation in a Participating Gray Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Homework

**Solution Methods for Radiative Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Series Expansion and Moment Methods

Discrete Ordinates (SN) Method

Other Methods That Depend on Angular Discretization

Zonal Method

Monte Carlo Technique for Radiatively Participating Media

Additional Solution Methods

Comparison of Results for the Methods

Benchmark Solutions for Computational Verification

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Use of Mean Absorption Coefficients

Solution Using Commercial Codes

Homework

**Conjugate Heat Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Radiation Combined with Conduction

Transient Solutions Including Conduction

Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in a Boundary Layer

Numerical Solution Methods for Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in Participating Media

Combined Radiation, Convection, and Conduction Heat Transfer

Inverse Multimode Problems

Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Homework

**Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

Introduction

EM Wave Equations

Wave Propagation in a Medium

Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Amplitude and Scattering Matrices

EM Wave Theory and the Radiative Transfer Equation

Homework

**Absorption and Scattering by Particles and Agglomerates**

Overview

Absorption and Scattering: Definitions

Scattering by Spherical Particles

Scattering by Small Particles

Lorenz-Mie Theory for Spherical Particles

Prediction of Properties for Irregularly Shaped Particles

Approximate Anisotropic Scattering Phase Functions

Dependent Absorption and Scattering

Homework

**Near-Field Thermal Radiation**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Treatment of Thermal Radiation and Basic Concepts

Evanescent and Surface Waves

Near-Field Radiative Heat Flux Calculations

Computational Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Experimental Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Concluding Remarks

Homework

Acknowledgment

**Radiative Effects in Translucent Solids, Windows, and Coatings**

Introduction

Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection of Windows

Enclosure Analysis with Partially Transparent Windows

Effects of Coatings or Thin Films on Surfaces

Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in a Participating Medium

Multiple Participating Layers with Heat Conduction

Light Pipes and Fiber Optics

Final Remarks

Homework

**A: Conversion Factors, Radiation Constants, and Blackbody Functions**

**B: Radiative Properties**

**Catalog of Selected Configuration Factors**

**Exponential Integral Relations and Two-Dimensional Radiation Functions**

**E: References**

*Explore the Radiative Exchange between Surfaces*

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

Comprised of 17 chapters, this text:

- Discusses the fundamental RTE and its simplified forms for different medium properties
- Explores the historical development and the radiative behavior of a blackbody
- Defines the radiative properties of solid opaque surfaces
- Provides a detailed analysis and solution procedure for radiation exchange analysis

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** explores methods for solving the RTE to determine the local spectral intensity, radiative flux, and flux gradient. This book enables you to assess and calculate the exchange of energy between objects that determine radiative transfer at different energy levels.

**Introduction to Radiative Transfer**

Importance of Thermal Radiation in Engineering

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Radiative Transfer

Radiative Energy Exchange and Radiative Intensity

Characteristics of Emission

Radiative Energy along a Line-of-Sight

Radiative Transfer Equation

Radiative Transfer in Enclosures with Nonparticipating Media

Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes

Homework

**Radiative Properties at Interfaces**

Introduction

Emissivity

Absorptivity

Reflectivity

Transmissivity at an Interface

Relations among Reflectivity, Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Transmissivity

Homework

**Radiative Properties of Opaque Materials**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Wave Theory Predictions

Extensions of the Theory for Radiative Properties

Measured Properties of Real Dielectric Materials

Measured Properties of Metals

Selective and Directional Opaque Surfaces

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Configuration Factors for Diffuse Surfaces with Uniform Radiosity**

Radiative Transfer Equation for Surfaces Separated by a Transparent Medium

Geometric Configuration Factors between Two Surfaces

Methods for Determining Configuration Factors

Constraints on Configuration Factor Accuracy

Compilation of Known Configuration Factors and Their References: Appendix C and Web Catalog

Homework

**Radiation Exchange in Enclosures Composed of Black and/or Diffuse-Gray Surfaces**

Introduction

Radiative Transfer for Black Surfaces

Radiation between Finite Diffuse-Gray Areas

Radiation Analysis Using Infinitesimal Areas

Computer Programs for Enclosure Analysis

Homework

**Exchange of Thermal Radiation among Nondiffuse Nongray Surfaces**

Introduction

Enclosure Theory for Diffuse Nongray Surfaces

Directional-Gray Surfaces

Surfaces with Directionally and Spectrally Dependent Properties

Radiation Exchange in Enclosures with Specularly Reflecting Surfaces

Net-Radiation Method in Enclosures Having Both Specular and Diffuse Reflecting Surfaces

Multiple Radiation Shields

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection at Boundaries**

Introduction

Energy Relations and Boundary Conditions

Radiation Transfer with Conduction Boundary Conditions

Radiation with Convection and Conduction

Numerical Solution Methods

Numerical Integration Methods for Use with Enclosure Equations

Numerical Formulations for Combined-Mode Energy Transfer

Numerical Solution Techniques

Monte Carlo Method

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Inverse Problems in Radiative Heat Transfer**

Introduction to Inverse Problems

General Inverse Solution Methods

Comparison of Methods for a Particular Problem

Application of Metaheuristic Methods

Unresolved Problems

Inverse Problems at the Nanoscale

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Properties of Absorbing and Emitting Media**

Introduction

Spectral Lines and Bands for Gas Absorption and Emission

Band Models and Correlations for Gas Absorption and Emission

Gas Total Emittance Correlations

True Absorption Coefficient

Radiative Properties of Translucent Liquids and Solids

Homework

**Fundamental Radiative Transfer Relations**

Introduction

Energy Equation and Boundary Conditions for a Participating Medium

Radiative Transfer and Source-Function Equations

Radiative Flux and Its Divergence within a Medium

Summary of Relations for Radiative Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media

Treatment of Radiation Transfer in Non-LTE Media

Net Radiation Method for Enclosures Filled with an Isothermal Medium of Uniform Composition

Evaluation of Spectral Geometric-Mean Transmittance and Absorptance Factors

Exchange of Total Radiation in an Enclosure by Use of Mean Beam Length

Optically Thin and Cold Media

Homework

**Radiative Transfer in Plane Layers and Multidimensional Geometries**

Introduction

Radiative Intensity, Flux, Flux Divergence, and Source Function in a Plane Layer

Gray Plane Layer of Absorbing and Emitting Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Gray Plane Layer in Radiative Equilibrium

Multidimensional Radiation in a Participating Gray Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Homework

**Solution Methods for Radiative Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Series Expansion and Moment Methods

Discrete Ordinates (SN) Method

Other Methods That Depend on Angular Discretization

Zonal Method

Monte Carlo Technique for Radiatively Participating Media

Additional Solution Methods

Comparison of Results for the Methods

Benchmark Solutions for Computational Verification

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Use of Mean Absorption Coefficients

Solution Using Commercial Codes

Homework

**Conjugate Heat Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Radiation Combined with Conduction

Transient Solutions Including Conduction

Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in a Boundary Layer

Numerical Solution Methods for Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in Participating Media

Combined Radiation, Convection, and Conduction Heat Transfer

Inverse Multimode Problems

Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Homework

**Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

Introduction

EM Wave Equations

Wave Propagation in a Medium

Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Amplitude and Scattering Matrices

EM Wave Theory and the Radiative Transfer Equation

Homework

**Absorption and Scattering by Particles and Agglomerates**

Overview

Absorption and Scattering: Definitions

Scattering by Spherical Particles

Scattering by Small Particles

Lorenz-Mie Theory for Spherical Particles

Prediction of Properties for Irregularly Shaped Particles

Approximate Anisotropic Scattering Phase Functions

Dependent Absorption and Scattering

Homework

**Near-Field Thermal Radiation**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Treatment of Thermal Radiation and Basic Concepts

Evanescent and Surface Waves

Near-Field Radiative Heat Flux Calculations

Computational Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Experimental Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Concluding Remarks

Homework

Acknowledgment

**Radiative Effects in Translucent Solids, Windows, and Coatings**

Introduction

Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection of Windows

Enclosure Analysis with Partially Transparent Windows

Effects of Coatings or Thin Films on Surfaces

Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in a Participating Medium

Multiple Participating Layers with Heat Conduction

Light Pipes and Fiber Optics

Final Remarks

Homework

**A: Conversion Factors, Radiation Constants, and Blackbody Functions**

**B: Radiative Properties**

**Catalog of Selected Configuration Factors**

**Exponential Integral Relations and Two-Dimensional Radiation Functions**

**E: References**

*Explore the Radiative Exchange between Surfaces*

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

What’s New in the Sixth Edition

Comprised of 17 chapters, this text:

- Discusses the fundamental RTE and its simplified forms for different medium properties
- Explores the historical development and the radiative behavior of a blackbody
- Defines the radiative properties of solid opaque surfaces
- Provides a detailed analysis and solution procedure for radiation exchange analysis

**Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition** explores methods for solving the RTE to determine the local spectral intensity, radiative flux, and flux gradient. This book enables you to assess and calculate the exchange of energy between objects that determine radiative transfer at different energy levels.

**Introduction to Radiative Transfer**

Importance of Thermal Radiation in Engineering

Thermal Energy Transfer

Thermal Radiative Transfer

Radiative Energy Exchange and Radiative Intensity

Characteristics of Emission

Radiative Energy along a Line-of-Sight

Radiative Transfer Equation

Radiative Transfer in Enclosures with Nonparticipating Media

Concluding Remarks and Historical Notes

Homework

**Radiative Properties at Interfaces**

Introduction

Emissivity

Absorptivity

Reflectivity

Transmissivity at an Interface

Relations among Reflectivity, Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Transmissivity

Homework

**Radiative Properties of Opaque Materials**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Wave Theory Predictions

Extensions of the Theory for Radiative Properties

Measured Properties of Real Dielectric Materials

Measured Properties of Metals

Selective and Directional Opaque Surfaces

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Configuration Factors for Diffuse Surfaces with Uniform Radiosity**

Radiative Transfer Equation for Surfaces Separated by a Transparent Medium

Geometric Configuration Factors between Two Surfaces

Methods for Determining Configuration Factors

Constraints on Configuration Factor Accuracy

Compilation of Known Configuration Factors and Their References: Appendix C and Web Catalog

Homework

**Radiation Exchange in Enclosures Composed of Black and/or Diffuse-Gray Surfaces**

Introduction

Radiative Transfer for Black Surfaces

Radiation between Finite Diffuse-Gray Areas

Radiation Analysis Using Infinitesimal Areas

Computer Programs for Enclosure Analysis

Homework

**Exchange of Thermal Radiation among Nondiffuse Nongray Surfaces**

Introduction

Enclosure Theory for Diffuse Nongray Surfaces

Directional-Gray Surfaces

Surfaces with Directionally and Spectrally Dependent Properties

Radiation Exchange in Enclosures with Specularly Reflecting Surfaces

Net-Radiation Method in Enclosures Having Both Specular and Diffuse Reflecting Surfaces

Multiple Radiation Shields

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection at Boundaries**

Introduction

Energy Relations and Boundary Conditions

Radiation Transfer with Conduction Boundary Conditions

Radiation with Convection and Conduction

Numerical Solution Methods

Numerical Integration Methods for Use with Enclosure Equations

Numerical Formulations for Combined-Mode Energy Transfer

Numerical Solution Techniques

Monte Carlo Method

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Inverse Problems in Radiative Heat Transfer**

Introduction to Inverse Problems

General Inverse Solution Methods

Comparison of Methods for a Particular Problem

Application of Metaheuristic Methods

Unresolved Problems

Inverse Problems at the Nanoscale

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Concluding Remarks

Homework

**Properties of Absorbing and Emitting Media**

Introduction

Spectral Lines and Bands for Gas Absorption and Emission

Band Models and Correlations for Gas Absorption and Emission

Gas Total Emittance Correlations

True Absorption Coefficient

Radiative Properties of Translucent Liquids and Solids

Homework

**Fundamental Radiative Transfer Relations**

Introduction

Energy Equation and Boundary Conditions for a Participating Medium

Radiative Transfer and Source-Function Equations

Radiative Flux and Its Divergence within a Medium

Summary of Relations for Radiative Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Media

Treatment of Radiation Transfer in Non-LTE Media

Net Radiation Method for Enclosures Filled with an Isothermal Medium of Uniform Composition

Evaluation of Spectral Geometric-Mean Transmittance and Absorptance Factors

Exchange of Total Radiation in an Enclosure by Use of Mean Beam Length

Optically Thin and Cold Media

Homework

**Radiative Transfer in Plane Layers and Multidimensional Geometries**

Introduction

Radiative Intensity, Flux, Flux Divergence, and Source Function in a Plane Layer

Gray Plane Layer of Absorbing and Emitting Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Gray Plane Layer in Radiative Equilibrium

Multidimensional Radiation in a Participating Gray Medium with Isotropic Scattering

Homework

**Solution Methods for Radiative Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Series Expansion and Moment Methods

Discrete Ordinates (SN) Method

Other Methods That Depend on Angular Discretization

Zonal Method

Monte Carlo Technique for Radiatively Participating Media

Additional Solution Methods

Comparison of Results for the Methods

Benchmark Solutions for Computational Verification

Inverse Problems Involving Participating Media

Use of Mean Absorption Coefficients

Solution Using Commercial Codes

Homework

**Conjugate Heat Transfer in Participating Media**

Introduction

Radiation Combined with Conduction

Transient Solutions Including Conduction

Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in a Boundary Layer

Numerical Solution Methods for Combined Radiation, Conduction, and Convection in Participating Media

Combined Radiation, Convection, and Conduction Heat Transfer

Inverse Multimode Problems

Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Homework

**Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

Introduction

EM Wave Equations

Wave Propagation in a Medium

Laws of Reflection and Refraction

Amplitude and Scattering Matrices

EM Wave Theory and the Radiative Transfer Equation

Homework

**Absorption and Scattering by Particles and Agglomerates**

Overview

Absorption and Scattering: Definitions

Scattering by Spherical Particles

Scattering by Small Particles

Lorenz-Mie Theory for Spherical Particles

Prediction of Properties for Irregularly Shaped Particles

Approximate Anisotropic Scattering Phase Functions

Dependent Absorption and Scattering

Homework

**Near-Field Thermal Radiation**

Introduction

Electromagnetic Treatment of Thermal Radiation and Basic Concepts

Evanescent and Surface Waves

Near-Field Radiative Heat Flux Calculations

Computational Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Experimental Studies of Near-Field Thermal Radiation

Concluding Remarks

Homework

Acknowledgment

**Radiative Effects in Translucent Solids, Windows, and Coatings**

Introduction

Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection of Windows

Enclosure Analysis with Partially Transparent Windows

Effects of Coatings or Thin Films on Surfaces

Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in a Participating Medium

Multiple Participating Layers with Heat Conduction

Light Pipes and Fiber Optics

Final Remarks

Homework

**A: Conversion Factors, Radiation Constants, and Blackbody Functions**

**B: Radiative Properties**

**Catalog of Selected Configuration Factors**

**Exponential Integral Relations and Two-Dimensional Radiation Functions**

**E: References**