The following investigations will usually be carried out.: (a) testing of haemoglobin levels: anaemia (reduced haemoglobin) reduces the
oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and may precipitate symptoms of intermittent claudication;
(b) urea and electrolytes: an investigation used to carry out kidney function, which may be affected in arterial disease;
(c) chest X-ray to exclude underlying chest disease: many patients with arterial disease were heavy smokers;
(d) electrocardiogram (ECG): carried out to assess heart function, as cardiac disease often co-exists with arterial disease; and
(e) urine analysis: urine is checked to exclude diabetes.