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The following investigations will usually be carried out.: (a) testing of haemoglobin levels: anaemia (reduced haemoglobin) reduces the

oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and may precipitate symptoms of intermittent claudication;

(b) urea and electrolytes: an investigation used to carry out kidney function, which may be affected in arterial disease;

(c) chest X-ray to exclude underlying chest disease: many patients with arterial disease were heavy smokers;

(d) electrocardiogram (ECG): carried out to assess heart function, as cardiac disease often co-exists with arterial disease; and

(e) urine analysis: urine is checked to exclude diabetes.