Chapter 1 introduced the idea of a regulatory cycle and considered the importance of regulations (the ﬁrst stage in the cycle) being developed as a way to deliver enforceable, eﬀective and eﬃcient outcomes. Businesses ﬁrst, usually, encounter the regulatory cycle when they apply for permission to do something. This permission is usually a ‘permit’ or ‘licence’ and is the subject of this chapter, which begins with some introductory comments on the purpose of permits and then considers the processes that the permitting authority and operator go through to obtain a permit. A variety of diﬀerent types of permitting is then examined. More detailed consideration of permitting is then given in order to deﬁne what is permitted and how permits are reviewed. As permitting imposes some signiﬁcant costs, ways to improve the eﬃciency of permitting are addressed. Finally, the chapter concludes with a consideration of non-command and control instruments that might either have their own permitting systems or which interact with the systems covered earlier in the chapter, such as emissions trading, environmental management systems and negotiated agreements. At the end of the chapter six checklists are suggested, aimed at improving the eﬃciency of permitting systems.