Developing countries attach great importance to levels of and changes in indus-
trial tariffs because industrial products-defined as all non-agricultural prod-
ucts-account for more than 70 per cent of their exports (UNCTAD, 2002; WTO,
1994; Michalopoulos, 1999). Especially for industrial products with high value
added, tariff levels and changes determine developing countries’ effective access to
industrial country markets as well as the extent to which their industrial strategies
translate trade into benefits for human development.