Discussion and policy implications
This article describes analysis of low-carbon society (LCS) scenarios using the UK MARKAL-Macro (M-M) hybrid model. This modelling approach delivers optimal energy system (supply-side and demand-side) configurations assuming competitive markets and perfect foresight. As such, longterm target setting by government is a critical component, especially when analysing very deep UK C 0 2 reductions. Long-term LCS are analysed via a Carbon price scenario (rising to $100/tC 02 by 2050) and a series of Carbon-plus scenarios (80% reduction in UK energy C 0 2 emissions by 2050).