If the countryside is culturally created, and if what really matters about it are those values that we attach to it, where does that leave "nature" and "nature conservation"? Alexander Wilson argues that nature too is "part of c~lture".~ It does not spring from the air or the earth as a free-standing and inviolate set of principles or ideas. He suggests that our experience of the natural world is "mediated", shaped by photography, television, advertising and aesthetics, and by institutions like religion and education. If this is so, what does it mean for nature conservation? On what are all the efforts of British conservationists since the end of the Second World War founded?