The following Table 1 is a summary of the costs and estimated beneﬁts of tank farming of ﬁsh in Nigeria. This is based on costs for a single 16m2 tank with a ﬁsh production cycle of six months.
Although the aquaculture industry in Nigeria is still subject to input price ﬂuctuations, the industry continues to expand. With a number of technical assistance projects focused on capacity building, skills continue to be developed to support the industry and strengthen the value chain. The industry was led by the establishment of intensive ﬁsh hatcheries and delivery of quality ﬁsh feeds through imports or greatly improved local production including extruded, ﬂoating ﬁsh feeds. Professional associations have also evolved to drive the industry with wider participation in the value chain as with training programmes, certiﬁcation of technical consultants and quality control of ﬁsh seed and feeds. The value chain for input supplies has become very broad in a short time period, with many suppliers of ﬁsh seed
and feeds. The wide variety of input suppliers has increased competition and resulted in cost savings that are passed on to farmers and the potential ability for expanding into wider markets. Veterinary services for the identiﬁcation and treatment of diseases and parasites remain a weak area, but this is slowly being addressed as are issues concerning environmental management. While farms have not so far had issues of environmental impact, most have limited areas (,10ha) and varying levels of release of eutrophic waters. As the sector matures and as input prices rise and
market values settle or fall, the commercial resilience of the industry is to be tested. To date, it has accommodated these challenges through efﬁciency improvements, and in a competitive environment, more successful producers appear to be emerging and may assume a greater share of national output. The ecosystem resilience of these systems so far shows little constraint, although if the industry expands, suitable locations with adequate environmental capacity may become a constraint. Socially, these systems appear to be providing a valuable source of income diversiﬁcation, and may in the future become a notable source of youth employment.