Public Participation and Implementation
However, some of the cases discussed thus far and the broader research literature suggest caution in making easy connections between good public participation and successful implementation. Of the two remedial action plan (RAP) cases discussed at the beginning of Chapter 3, the acrimonious Detroit River case-not the harmonious Buffalo River one-demonstrated more progress toward full implementation five to seven years after the planning phase ended. Indeed, good public participation and successful implementation have not been consistently linked in RAP cases as a whole (Beierle and Konisky 2001). One analyst of RAP cases concludes that whatever implementation has occurred has had very little to do with the participatory planning process (Gurtner-Zimmermann 1996).