Cross-Cultural Team Development
One of the principal reasons for this team emphasis is the shift in the new work culture to network organizations. Raymond E. Miles et al. describe why and how large-scale organizations, like IBM, are transitioning from hierarchial command structures to smaller, more focused corporations guided by market forces. Miles et al.  point to such causes as global competition, rapid technological change, deregulation, and demographic shifts. To survive and be competitive, the multilevel, vertically organized bureaucracies are forced to transform to clusters of downsized, focused, enterprising business units attuned to the customer. Thus, Professor Miles and his colleagues at the Haas School of Business in Berkley developed conferences within the university extension program that enabled managers to reshape their strategic roles and redeploy resources. In the emerging network organizations, boundaries, and memberships are flexible, work units are fluid and easily re-assembled, and resources-both human and materialare deployed readily across organizational and national boundaries to meet product or service life-cycle demands.