Motivations, attitudes, and beliefs
Consumer behavior is ‘the psychological and social processes people undergo in the acquisition, use and disposal of products, services, ideas, and practices’ (Bagozzi et al., 2002, p. 1). Several models of consumer behavior apply to travel and tourism.While the models posit different paths to travel behavior, similarities exist. Each model posits an effect of external and internal variables on behavior/destination choice by affecting the decision process. Among the most important external variables are communications about travel and travel destinations (Schmoll, 1977; Woodside and Lysonski, 1989; Um and Crompton, 1990), signiﬁcant referents (Schmoll, 1977; Mayo and Jarvis, 1981; Moutinho, 1987; Um and Crompton, 1990), and attributes of travel destinations and providers (Schmoll, 1977). External variables affect travel decisions and behavior by inﬂuencing psychological constructs internal to the traveler. Common internal factors include personality (Schmoll, 1977; Mayo and Jarvis, 1981; Moutinho, 1987), attitudes and beliefs (Schmoll, 1977; Mayo and Jarvis, 1981; Moutinho, 1987; Middleton, 1988; Woodside and Lysonski, 1989; Um and Crompton, 1990; Gilbert, 1991), and motivations (Schmoll, 1977; Mayo and Jarvis, 1981; Moutinho, 1987; Um and Crompton, 1990; Gilbert, 1991). This chapter discusses the impacts of motivations, attitudes, and beliefs on travel behavior and decision-making, with a focus on travel motivation frameworks and social psychological theories of attitudes and beliefs. Though presented separately in this chapter, their close proximity in most models of consumer behavior suggests that these factors are related. While motivations ‘energize’ actions (March and Woodside, 2005) related to travel, their relationship to behavior depends upon attitudes and beliefs about travel destinations and behavior within speciﬁc contexts (Baloglu, 2000). That is, attitudes and beliefs about speciﬁc travel behavior mediate the relationship between one’s travel motivations and behavior.