chapter  7
25 Pages

In search of a clear and overarching American policy: The Reporter magazine (1949–68) and the Cold War


In 1967 Ramparts magazine revealed the machinations of an extensive state-private network. The Ramparts exposé, which disclosed the funding by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the National Student Association (NSA), was followed by exposure of the CIA’s involvement in such ostensibly private organisations as Radio Free Europe and the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF). These institutions were funded indirectly by the CIA’s International Organizations Division, which channelled money through a network of conduits specifically created for this purpose; examples of such institutions included the Free Europe Committee as well as philanthropic foundations run by ‘witting’ allies among America’s corporate elites, such as the Farfield Foundation.1 The secrecy surrounding the source of funding was a vital attribute of this campaign because as Frances Stonor Saunders has pointed out, the CIA was convinced that ‘the most effective kind of propaganda’ was the kind where ‘the subject moves in the direction you desire for reasons which he believes to be his own’.2