WILL THE EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS OF PART-TIMERS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND WORSEN?
In Australia and New Zealand between a quarter and one-fifth of the workforce work part-time. Part-time jobs rose from 12 per cent in 1973 to 17 per cent in 1983 and to 24 per cent of the Australian workforce in 1993. Similar patterns are evident in New Zealand: in 1973 part-time work comprised 11.2 per cent of total employment, compared to 15 per cent in 1983 and 21 per cent by 1993 (OECD 1983, 1994). This growth mirrors trends in other OECD countries over this period: first, it has occurred in a limited number of occupations and industries, primarily service-related, and second, the majority of part-time workers are women (see Smith et al., Chapter 2, and Delsen, Chapter 3, this volume). Of course, the gendered nature of part-time employment and its concentration in particular industries and occupations are related, as increased female participation in paid employment has not led to a diminishing of their responsibility for unpaid work.