We start our analysis of the organizations conducting economic research by looking briefly at the market for doctors of economics. While the main aim of Ph.D. programmes is to produce researchers, quite a few of those with doctoral degrees go on to other careers, often after spending some time in research. These careers may be in business or public administration, and traditionally they have not required a Ph.D. level of professional skills. A change in the professional requirements is already taking place, and it is likely to become more pronounced in the future. Highly trained economists are needed to an increasing extent in positions outside the universities and the major research institutes.