The production and consumption of energy have had a massive impact upon the geography of the United Kingdom (UK). This impact extends from the influence of water power on the location of the early textile mills, through the economic and social transformations deriving from the exploitation of coal during the Industrial Revolution to the relatively recent consequences of North Sea oil and gas. The pace of change has accelerated and this Chapter focuses upon developments in the relatively recent past which have moulded contemporary patterns. It is divided into two sections. The first identifies the principal factors shaping the evolution of energy markets in the UK and the second reviews some of the spatial implications of these changes.