Transfers across three generations
In this section we examine different types of both ascending and descending private transfers and their socio-economic determinants. Our analysis does not include inheritance, but it is focused on transfers which circulate between living generations, namely inter vivos transfers. An assessment of the balance of private transfers remains a difficult task to achieve since the survey only takes into account retrospective data based on financial gifts and other economic aid, either in nature or in kind, received regularly or occasionally. The difficulty of measuring instrumental transfers within the family are often emphasised by sociologists and economists. Our results mainly focus on the circulation of financial transfers and in-kind services between the three generations, which is likely to provide an underestimated picture of private assistance.