THE political upheaval of 1960-61 has thrown Turkey into a condition of accelerated social change where politics and economics interact with redoubled intensity. Economic development is widely acknowledged as a goal and pursued with a new sense of urgency. For the last two decades, Turkey's population has been expanding faster than ever and flocking into the sprawling cities in unprecedented numbers. There is more social as well as geographic mobility. Group demands for economic advantage are being pressed with new vigour by businessmen, labour unions, and landowners. A greater variety of political ideologies is being advocated than ever before. Planning and social justice are principles invoked on all sides, but there is little agreement on the goals of planning or the standards of justice. Throughout the 1960s, economic issues have outclamoured most others in a continuous debate within the government, in the legislature, and before the electorate. But democracy and freedom of expression are themselves coming under attack. If at any future time ambitious colonels or doctrinaire professors should force democratic institutions into a sterner authoritarian mould, the requirements of economic development are likely to furnish the rationale, or at least a major pretext, for such a change.