chapter  7
The Influence of Empowerment on Organizational Success: A Case Study on Flight Centre
Pages 38

Empowerment has been practiced as a tool for organizational effectiveness for decades. However, to many, the essence of empowerment is barely realized (Hales and Klidas, 1998; Lashley and McGoldrick, 1994; Pickard, 1993). Some believe that empowerment is no more than a buzzword of organizational control, or that it is only an illusion, not a reality, and that it does not necessarily lead to organizational success (Argyris, 1998; Claydon and Doyle, 1996; Cunningham and Hyman, 1999; Smith and Mouly, 1998).