chapter  4
The Relationship Between Initial Meaningful and Mechanical Knowledge of Arithmetic
Pages 38

Especially in recent years, much has been learned about children's informal (largely self-invented, counting-based) arithmetic. It is clear that children's informal arithmetic is an important basis for learning formal (school-taught, symbolic) arithmetic (e.g., Baroody, 1986; Brownell, 1935; Ginsburg, 1982; Hiebert, 1984). In this chapter, we examine arithmetic routines that develop either without formal instruction or during the first years of formal schooling. We discuss, in tum, (a) informal addition procedures, (b) automatic production of the basic arithmetic combinations, and (c) (counterproductive) routines for coping with school-assigned arithmetic.