chapter  18
11 Pages

The Marshall Plan

ByNicholas Crafts

Introduction The Marshall Plan was a major program of aid which transferred $12.5 billion from the United States to Western Europe during the years 1948 to 1951. The phrase “Marshall Plan” has an iconic status, as is reflected in repeated calls over time for a new Marshall Plan for Eastern Europe (in the 1990s), for Africa (in the 2000s), and now for the Middle East. This suggests both that it qualifies for inclusion in this Handbook and also that it is important to be clear what it comprised, to evaluate its achievements, and to explain its successes and failures.