Security as emancipation
The chapter provides a conceptual introduction to the notion of Security as Emancipation (SAE), originally identiﬁ ed with the ‘Welsh School’ of Critical Security Studies (CSS). The three key tenets that characterize this approach are: recognition of individuals as ultimate referents of security, emphasis on the political underpinnings and implications of security praxis, and a normative commitment towards emancipatory transformations. Employing the case of the 1984 industrial accident in the Indian city of Bhopal, the chapter demonstrates how SAE is useful to understand and act politically upon a speciﬁ c security issue. The chapter also reﬂ ects upon the signiﬁ cance of SAE in CSS, while recognizing its methodological implications and some of its limitations.