Leadership and Goal Setting
The leadership literature is broad and includes a number of different theories and models of leader behavior. These theories and models tend to highlight speciﬁ c aspects of leader activity that promote individual, team, and organizational functioning. Most often, models of leadership describe speciﬁ c behavioral patterns that characterize a particular approach (e.g., transformational leadership; Bass, 1985 ). In the evolution of our ﬁ eld’s pursuit of understanding and explaining leader effectiveness, scholars have deﬁ ned leadership in terms of the individual traits that are present in exceptional leaders (e.g., Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991 ), the behaviors that characterize effective leader interactions with followers (e.g., Stogdill, 1963 ), and ﬁ nally, the process by which leaders inspire followers to achieve collective goals (e.g., House, 1971 ). In that way, goals and goal setting have become a central aspect of how leadership is deﬁ ned in general, and effective leadership in particular.