Multiple perpetrator rape: An international phenomenon
International variations in definition For it to be possible to examine multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) as an international phenomenon it is necessary to first clearly define the term, since a range of terminology has been used in the past, often referring to the same or a similar type of assault (Horvath & Kelly, 2009). The terms used tend to vary according to different countries and some can be used to refer to both rape and consensual sexual practice (Horvath & Kelly, 2009). In the United States of America (USA) the terms associated with MPR are ‘gang bang’, ‘party rape’, ‘campus gang rape’, ‘fraternity gang rape’ and ‘running a train’ (Rothman et al., 2008). In South Africa the terms ‘jackrolling’ and ‘streamlining’ have been identified (Wood, 2005). In the United Kingdom (UK), terms such as ‘line up’ and ‘battery chick’ are used by gangs (Firmin, 2010). In Australia the term ‘pack rape’ often appears in the media (Wilson, 2009). This term is believed to originate from a case discussed in the Daily Mirror described as ‘a kind of sexual blitzkrieg’ (Woods, 1969, p. 105). The terms used to describe MPR can also differ according to the context; for example, ‘collective rape’ is defined by Green (2004, p. 102) as ‘a pattern of sexual violence perpetrated on civilians by agents of a state, political group, and/ or politicized ethnic group’.