Governance beyond the nation state provides an excellent laboratory in which political scientists can probe a host of issues and concepts of concern, such as legitimacy, accountability, and the participatory quality of various governance arrangements. There is no (world) state in the international system with a legitimate monopoly over the use of force and the capacity of authoritative rule enforcement. As a result – and with the exception of the European Union (EU) – there is no ‘shadow of hierarchy’ available to which governance arrangements can refer and in accordance with which actors can be made to comply. This implies that the problem of governance beyond the nation state is not only about complementing or temporarily replacing some functions of the modern nation state in the provision of common goods. Governance beyond the nation state is about seeking functional equivalents to nation states in terms of providing political order and common goods in the international realm. In other words, the nation state has no fallback option if international governance does not work. In the international system, there is either ‘governance without government’ (Czempiel and Rosenau 1992), or there is no rule-making at all. This also means that rule enforcement has to rely on incentives and sanctions, on the one hand, or on voluntary compliance resulting from the norm’s perceived legitimacy, on the other (for a discussion see Hurd 1999). In sum, governance in the global system is about creating social and political order in the absence of modern statehood.