Pathways to Participatory Governance: Civil Society–State Dynamics and Institutional Rules
Municipal councils for housing will never be the only deciding factor in policy outcomes, but as the movement leader indicates in the opening quote, CSOs (civil society organizations) believe that the councils legitimize the policy process and affect change in the distribution of resources. In Chapter 3 I fi nd that the existence of municipal housing councils does signifi cantly increase the probability of municipalities adopting all types of programs. This effect is not dependent on a strong civil society, suggesting that the existence of the participatory institution matters more than the actual density of CSOs. But what does lead to differences in the policy process and outcomes of participatory institutions? Though scholars have begun to name potential variables that infl uence the policy-making process and outcomes of participatory governance institutions, this chapter undertakes a comparative analysis of Brazilian cities to provide evidence for how and when context matters.