Civil Society Density, Participatory Governance, and Policy Outcomes
In the previous chapter I fi nd that though municipal housing councils are associated with an increase in social housing policy adoption, the density of civil society is not consistently related to the adoption of housing programs. The number of civil society organizations (CSOs), as measured by nonprofi ts and foundations per capita, does not appear to make a signifi cant difference for municipal-level social policy outcomes. An organized civil society alone does not lead governments to make changes in housing program adoption. This fi nding would seem to make participatory governance institutions all the more important for including the voices of CSOs in policy making. Participatory governance institutions may be the missing link between the institutions of representative democracy and the vital role of civil society in promoting accountability and responsiveness.