Contextualizing bioethics: the declarations in
In the preface to UNESCO’s volume on how the UDHGHR (1997) came into being, then Director-General of UNESCO Federico Mayor wrote, ‘It is now the responsibility of States to breathe life into the Declaration, inter alia, by refl ecting it in their domestic legislation’ (UNESCO 1999a: III). Seven years on from the adoption of the third declaration, the UDBHR (2005), this chapter outlines how far all three are refl ected in the laws, regulations and policies of two states in particular: Kenya and South Africa. First, though, we look again at the negotiation process for the 2005 bioethics declaration.1 The analysis takes a step back from the negotiations themselves, to see what, if anything, fi rst happened at national level to enable each country to work out its negotiating position. This is followed by a review of how stakeholders (geneticists, ethicists and so on) in Kenya and South Africa perceive the declarations and whether they see the governance of human cloning as an important issue.