The Return of the Local? Anglicization, Transnationalism, and Religion in the Global City
GLOBALIZATION, TRANSNATIONALISM, AND TRANSLOCALISM
The academic focus on globalization, which rapidly developed during the early 1990s, can partly be understood as a belated response to the economic eff ects of neoliberalism and to the political consequences of the sudden collapse of communist regimes in the USSR and its European satellite countries. These economic and political changes strengthened what some have termed the ‘mobility turn’ (see, for example, Sheller and Urry 2006), as scholars explored the theoretical implications and substantive eff ects of the ﬂ ows of people, goods, capital, and information around the globe. In what sometimes appeared to be a rather breathless celebration of global movement, nation-state boundaries seemed to decline in signiﬁ cance. The discussion of globalization and post-nationalism in relation to the theory of post-modernity was developed most strikingly in the work of Bauman (1998, 2000, 2006).