Dixon, Otsuka and Abe in Part 3 for a discussion of brownfield regeneration in the same city. Mace highlights how conditions in the post-boom period (after 2008) limited regeneration choices that were open to the city council and argues for the instigation of a more openly political regeneration approach, with a more transparent contestation of resources. Mace concludes that Manchester succeeded in demonstrating self-determination within an environment of limited choice, since many of its perceived failings are more a critique of the win-win regeneration rhetoric of New Labour’s city-fix than the failings of Manchester. While New Labour provided a list of aims by which to judge the shortfall, many of the (claimed) win-win outcomes were doubtful. Hence there was a gulf between the national political rhetoric and the reality of local delivery. In a sense, he suggests, the case of Manchester (the world’s first modern globally orientated industrial city) shows how the ‘globalizer-was-globalized’ and Manchester was forced to grasp opportunities where they arose. For instance, investment came to the city from Ireland, but this reduced with the Irish economic/Euro Zone crisis after 2008. In overall terms, this case shows how, particularly in an unfavourable economic climate, regeneration would seem to begin with real estate.