Between the State, Market and Family: Structures, Policies and Practices of Care in India
In this chapter we examine the provision of childcare in India. Choices regarding care practices are embedded in political, cultural and social economies. We begin by outlining the demographic, householding and economic trends that structure care needs and the possibilities of giving/receiving care. We then examine the organization of care across four institutions that make up the “care diamond” (Razavi 2007): the state, the familyhousehold, the market and the non-proﬁ t/voluntary/community sector. In looking at the state, some speciﬁ c care-related social programmes are analyzed. Family-household care is mapped through the 1998-1999 pilot Time Utilisation Survey conducted by the Central Statistical Organisation in six states. It reveals that in India, the bulk of care takes place in the home. The market in care is explored through an analysis of domestic workers-an employment category that has witnessed tremendous growth over the past decades. Last, initiatives in the non-proﬁ t sector are outlined.