Models of investigation
Contrasting with the belief that miscarriages of justice are rare aberrations, Nobles and Schiff (1997, 2000) argue that we are condemned to an imperfect system:
Any real life system of criminal justice has to accept that resources are limited, and that society has to do other things with them. So criminal trials are institutions in which the truth is traded off against fairness, and both against considerations of cost. These trade-offs are constantly disguised so that, for example, traditional mechanisms can be presented as if, by being fair, they are also contributing to the pursuit of truth (1997: 297).