BEYOND ‘FOR OR AGAINST’: Environmental NGO-evaluations of CCS as a climate change solution
The environmental NGO (ENGO) community has previously had a considerable impact on public policy processes, not least through its ability to infl uence agendasetting and problem-defi nition in policy processes (Togerson 1997; van der Heijden 2010). However, it represents a particularly critical constituency for technologies such as large-scale CCS for which there is little other rationale than an environmental one, namely that of mitigating climate change (e.g. Shell 2008: 3). At the same time CCS is a complex case for environmentalists who may be drawn to it by a sense of urgency related to possible climatic tipping points, yet often harbour deep suspicions of fossil fuel industry actors, ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions and express scepticism regarding whether and how fast CCS will be rolled out and to what eff ect (Corry and Reiner 2011a).