LEARNING IN CCS DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: Social and political dimensions
As the global community raises its ambitions to tackle climate change, carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) has gained increased interest as a mitigation option (Pacala and Socolow 2004; IPCC 2005; GCCSI 2009). Accordingly, the last decade has seen rapid growth of the knowledge needed to explore and develop CCS technology (Stephens 2006; van Alphen, Noothout et al. 2010). However, multiple challenges for technology development remain, including reducing the cost of capture, validating the storage potential of saline aquifers and integrating the components and required infrastructure with power plants or other large-scale CO2-emitting facilities (IEA 2004; IPCC 2005; MIT 2007; McKinsey and Company 2008; Stephens and Jiusto 2010). It is increasingly acknowledged that further advancement of the technology requires large-scale demonstration, in diff erent contexts and confi gurations, of integrated systems with power plant, capture, transport and storage (de Coninck, Stephens et al. 2009; van Alphen, Noothout et al. 2010).