The road ahead: conclusions and governance implications MåNS NILSSON , ANNIKA RICKNE , KARL HILLMAN AND
Introduction Today, more than ever, with the rise of new tiger economies in Latin America and Asia and ensuing global demand increases for materials, goods and services, there is a dilemma between promoting economic growth, serving the aspirations of people and improving environmental sustainability. Great hopes are attached to innovation in green technology to help resolve this dilemma. In parallel, a business literature has emerged suggesting that here await significant business opportunities. Leading business thinkers now argue that pursuing profits alongside common goods, through including social and environmental challenges in its core strategies, can provide a cascade of innovation and productivity gains for businesses (Hart, 2005; Porter and Kramer, 2011). This idea is certainly not new but has attracted renewed interest in recent years. Still, evidence supporting this claim is based on scattered ‘good examples’ and ‘best practice’, and there is relatively little systematic analysis on what is really at stake in this ‘green race’. What appears clear is that while the private sector does find leverage in green technologies, there are also significant market barriers and uncertainties associated with them. Many new technological solutions that are success stories in reducing CO2 emissions today, such as wind power, biomass-based thermal power, district heating and public transport, have relied – and still rely – on subsidies and other forms of governance arrangements by different actors in the innovation system (IS). This book has formulated the challenge as a quest for governance of innovation, and brought together a number of cases and perspectives in new and emerging transport technologies from leading automotive and innovation countries around the world. The purpose has been to increase the evidence base for how innovation in low-carbon technologies can be supported, facilitated, catalysed or induced through public or public-private governance. The case of the transport sector, and road vehicle technologies within it, may not automatically lend itself to generalizations to other technologies, but the global challenge of transportation is, as articulated in Chapter 1, so large in itself that lessons learned from different jurisdictions and technologies deserve this synthesis.