Within the implementation components of policy and institutional anchoring, organisational support context, and sustainability, there is a focus on the need to build a country and regional scaffold to enclose and support school level implementation. Such a formal framework delineates the parameters within which action can occur, be monitored and reviewed. Change within this structure, such as in government priorities, can support or weaken implementation. Issues such as resources, leadership at various levels, consultative processes, the climate and culture and technical capacity are elements within these components. Case studies from England and Australia illustrate these elements.