A Model of Social Ecology of Bullying in Community
In the past few years, issues related to workplace bullying at higher education have received attention through popular media (Twale & De Luca, 2008). Recent articles illustrating misconduct among faculty in colleges and universities particularly highlight a lack of institutional policy on workplace bullying and civility (Schmidt, 2010, 2011). For instance, a false bullying allegation against a faculty member at the time of his tenure review revealed the lack of clarity and fairness in their due process and institutional readiness to handle bullying or harassment allegations with equity and justice, under diffi cult circumstances (Schmidt, 2011). Additionally, the Chronicle of Higher Education (Schmidt, 2010) describes the growing concerns and issues of workplace bullying in colleges and universities, and notes the recent involvement of pharmaceutical companies and other third parties in developing alternative resolution methods within the institutions.